Why are women living longer than men?
Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the main reason women are more likely to live longer than men? What is the reason the advantage has grown over time? The evidence is limited and شراء متابعين تيكتوك (homepage) we only have partial answers. While we are aware that there are behavioral, biological as well as environmental factors which play a significant role in women’s longevity more than men, we do not know what percentage each factor plays in.
In spite of the precise amount, we can say that at least a portion of the reason women live longer than men, but not previously, has to have to do with the fact that several key non-biological factors have changed. These are the factors that are changing. Some are well known and relatively straightforward, like the fact that men smoke more often. Others are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. It is clear that all countries are above the line of parity diagonally. This means that a newborn girl from every country could anticipate to live longer than her older brother.
The chart below shows that even though women enjoy an advantage everywhere, cross-country differences could be significant. In Russia women have an average of 10 years more than men. In Bhutan the difference is less than half each year.
In wealthy countries, the female advantage in longevity used to be smaller
Let’s look at how female longevity advantage has changed in the course of time. The following chart shows male and female life expectancies when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct features stand out.
The first is that there is an upward trend. Men and women living in America are living longer than they did a century ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
Second, there’s a widening gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used be very modest however, it has increased significantly over the course of the last century.
You can check if these principles are also applicable to other countries with information by clicking on the “Change country” option in the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.
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